Silver Roman Denarius (Coin) Emperor Philip the Arab + Legionary Dragon AD248

Silver Roman Denarius (Coin) Emperor Philip the Arab + Legionary Dragon AD248

Silver Roman Denarius (Coin) Emperor Philip the Arab + Legionary Dragon AD248
Silver Roman Antoninianus (Successor to the Denarius) of Emperor Philip the Arab with Goddess (of Tranquility) Tranquillitas; 248 A. OBVERSE INSCRIPTION : IMP PHILIPPVS AVG. OBVERSE DEPICTION : The bust of Emperor Philip I, cuirassed, draped, with radiate crown. REVERSE DEPICTION : The Goddess Tranquillitas enrobed wearing diadem, a hasta pura (ceremonial lance) in her left hand, and legionary dragon (symbolizing the tranquility of the Roman world won by her legionary armies) in her outstretched right hand. ATTRIBUTION : City of Rome Mint (Officina/Workshop #2) in 248 A. Diameter: 22 x 21 millimeters.

For a more authentic touch, we also have available handcrafted Greek black leather cords. We can reverse coin in mounting if you prefer opposite side showing front. DETAIL : This is a very handsome silver antoninianus produced in the city of Rome itself in 248 A. In the second workshop of Romes mint. We know that because there is the letter B in the field of the reverse side of the coin, B being the second letter in the Latin alphabet and so representing the second officinae.

The coin is in very good condition, evidencing only minor wear from circulation in ancient Rome, all legends and themes fairly clear and distinct. It was well struck both front and back, though the die that was used was starting to become a bit worn and clogged. The first three letters on the reverse legend are a bit faint as the engraved letters were becoming clogged with detritus and needed to be cleaned. Unlike most coins of the era, the strike caught the entirely of both the legends and the themes, and this is applicable to both the obverse as well as the reverse. It is without a doubt a superior strike. The obverse of the coin depicts Roman Emperor Philip I, draped and with radiate crown; and the legend IMP PHILLIPVS AVG. PHILIPPVS refers to the Emperors name, Marcus Julius Philippis. The IMP preface to his name is an abbreviation for Imperator.

Imperator was originally a title or acclamation awarded to victorious generals in the field during the Republic Period (before Julius Caesar). Throughout the history of Republican Rome, the title was bestowed upon an especially able general who had won an enormous victory. Traditionally it was the troops in the field that proclaimed a man imperator the first step in the process of the general applying to the senate for a triumph (a ceremony both civil and religious held in Rome itself to publicly honor the general and to display/parade the glories and trophies of Roman victory).

Imperatrix was the title of the wife an Imperator. After Augustus Octavian (Julius Caesars successor) had established the hereditary, one-man rule in Rome that we refer to as the Imperial Roman Empire, the title Imperator was restricted to the emperor and members of his immediate family. If a general who was not part of the imperial family was acclaimed by his troops as Imperator, it was tantamount to a declaration of rebellion or civil war against the ruling emperor. Though the title Augustus is probably the closest Latin equivalent to the English word emperor; it was eventually the term Imperator which became the root of the English word Imperial. The suffix to Philips name, AVG, was an abbreviation for Augustus.

The term Augustus is Latin for majestic (thus the honorific salutation your majesty). However the term Augustus in the common vernacular of the Roman Empire became synonymous with the Emperor.

The first "Augustus" (and first man counted as a Roman Emperor) was Octavius, Julis Caesars nephew and heir. Octavian was given the title of Augustus by the Senate in 27 B.

Over the next forty years, Caesar Augustus literally set the standard by which subsequent Emperors would be recognized, accumulating various offices and powers and making his own name ("Augustus") identifiable with the consolidation of these powers under a single person. Although the name signified nothing in constitutional theory, it was recognized as representing all the powers that Caesar Augustus eventually accumulated. Caesar Augustus also set the standard by which Roman Emperors were named.

The three titles used by the majority of Roman Emperors; Imperator, Caesar, and Augustus were all used personally by Caesar Augustus (he officially styled himself "Imperator Caesar Augustus"). However of the name "Augustus" was unique to the Emperor himself (though the Emperor's mother or wife could bear the name "Augusta"). But others could and did bear the titles "Imperator" and "Caesar". Later usage saw the Emperor adding the additional titles Pius Felix (pious and blessed) and Invictus (unconquered) in addition to the title Augustus. In this usage, by signifying the complete assumption of all Imperial powers, "Augustus" became roughly synonymous with Emperor in modern language. As the Roman Empire began splintering, Augustus came to be the title applied to the senior Emperor, while the title Caesar came to refer to his junior sub-Emperors. Julius Philippus is often referred to as Philip the Arab as he was a native of Arabia, his father a native leader. He was appointed to the post of Praetorian Praefect by his predecessor, young Gordian III. Within two years the treacherous Philip engineered the murder of Gordian III, aged 19, while in Mesopotamia. Philip intimidated the Senate into acknowledging him as Augustus, and then appointed his own son, Philip II as Caesar. The chief event during the reign of Philip I was the 248 AD celebration of the 1,000 year anniversary for the founding of Rome. There were magnificent games featuring wild beasts, and a series of coins were struck to commemorate the events.

In 247 AD Philip I elevated his son to the rank of co-Augustus, and moved North to campaign against barbarian tribes on the Danube River. His absence from Rome encouraged a number of usurpers, and in 249 AD he was finally forced to engage the rebellious legions of Trajan Decius in battle. The two armies met near Verona, and in the battle Philip I and his son Philip II were both killed (though some versions of history have Philip II surviving for a few more months in Rome). Naturally Trajan Decius, rebel, subsequently became Emperor Trajan Decius. The image of Philip depicted on this coin shows him wearing a radiate crown.

The radiate crown, common on the dupondius and antoninianus coins of Roman origin, is reference to divinity, specifically to the Greco-Roman Sun God Sol (or Helios, to the ancient Greeks, and Apollo to the later Greeks). The ancient Greeks generally portrayed their sun god as radiate crowned as can be seen depicted on the reverse of many ancient Greek (and ultimately Roman) coins. Eventually the Emperors of Rome borrowed the theme, not only depicting a Crowned God Sol on the reverse of their coins, but as well bestowing these divine attributes upon the obverse depiction of their Emperors. The Emperor is also depicted wearing a cuirass.

Roman muscle cuirass armor was considered a sign of a high ranking commander and was worn by Roman Emperors, Praetorian Prefects, Roman Generals, Praetorian Tribunes, and Legionary Legates. Examples of this type of armor can be seen in Roman marble statues and engravings at various museums throughout the world.

They were constructed of a leather-trimmed, thin sheet of metal (bronze, silver, or gold) and covered the chest and back. The metal work was generally very elaborate, and in the form of various gods or goddesses, mythological creatures, or the Roman eagle. There has only been one (fragmentary) ancient Roman cuirass ever recovered. The reverse of the coin features the Roman mythical personification of Tranquilitas, and the legend TRANQVILLITAS AVGG.

AVGG of course was the abbreviation for Augustus, just as it was on the obverse legend of this coin. The use of a double G in AVGG indicates that there were two people recognized as Augustus (Philip I and his son Philip II). The reverse of the coin features the Roman Goddess Tranquillitas, the Roman Goddess of tranquility, security, calmness, peace.

Tranquillitas was a bit of a mystery goddess, but she seems related to Annona (the Goddess of the Corn Harvest from Egypt) and Securitas, implying reference to the peaceful security of the Roman Empire. Not really a deity or goddess, rather an abstract symbol much like the Statue of Liberty symbolizes both America and the abstract concept of freedom and liberty. In Roman context, these are the values at the heart of the Via Romana, the Roman Way, and are thought to be those qualities which gave the Roman Republic the moral strength to conquer and civilize the world. Tranquillitas is oftentimes depicted with the attributes which seem to again hint at an association with the grain supply (and tranquility then of a placated and satiated population), a rudder and ears of grain, sometimes a modius or a prow, sometimes leaning on a pilaster (decorative column). A modius was a standard-sized sack of wheat or other grain weighing about 15 pounds (7 kilos).

Both a rudder and prow are references to the huge cargo galleys which brought the grain harvest across the Mediterranean from Egypt, Africa, and Sicily to Rome. In that connection Tranquillitas also seemed to have been the goddess of calm weather (very important for the transporting of the grain harvest). There even seems to have been a Tranquillitas Vacuna the goddess of doing absolutely nothing. Tranquillitas is also oftentimes depicted holding a scepter or hasta pura, a ceremonial lance (spear), the forerunner of the standard pilum issued to Roman soldiers, a reference to tranquility enforced/provided by the Roman military machine; or perhaps suggest a tranquil period for the Roman Armies which had been involved in frequent civil wars.

The hasta pura lacked the iron head of a spear or pike. The hasta was derived by the Roman from the Etrurians, who called it a corim.

By the Sabines it was called a quiris, their king called coritos as the spear was to them an attribute of royalty. The Hasta was the symbol not only of power, fortitude and valor, but also of majesty and even divinity. It is one of the insignia of the Gods, and of the Emperors and Augustae after their apotheosis, implying that they had become objects of worship. It is generally found in the hands of female divinities, as the war-spear is in those of warriors and heroes.

Last, in many of the plentiful issues of Constantine the Great Tranquillitas is depicted with an altar and globe, the globe evidently indicating the tranquility of the Roman world, partly insured by sacrifices and offerings to the gods. The symbol of the globe (as a symbol of the world) on Roman coinage was first used in 11 A.

On a denarius of Octavius Augustus. Known to the Romans as a "globus", it symbolized Rome's dominion over the world. It also symbolized eternity, or the eternal dominion of Rome, as a globe has no beginning or end. The globe eventually appeared on many coinage issues, to be found in the hand not only of emperors, but also of the deities Hercules, Jupitur, Sol, Eternitas, Felicitas, Fortuna, Providentia, the Genus Humanum, Indulgentia, Nobilitas, Perpetuitas, Securitas, Roma, Nike, and Virtus.

A variation of the theme known as a "victriola" consisted of a small image of Victory "Nike" standing upon a globe held by the emperor, signifying the emperors dominion over the world, the fruit of successful wars. In the latter Roman Empire this evolved into the symbol of a cross atop a globe.

This particular specimen is quite unique on that it depicts holding an object in her hand opposite the hasta pura, an object which has been the subject of much debate amongst experts. Many experts believe the object to be a Roman Dragon (draco), a symbol associated with the military ensigns (banners) all of the Roman Legionary Armies during the period of the Empire.

Again, this would be a reference to the tranquility afforded by the protection, fidelity, and valor of the Roman army. A dragon was different than a serpent, the dragon in art usually possessed a crest, beard, and oftentimes wings and feet. The dragon was considered a guardian in many ancient cultures, and it seems likely that the Romans adopted the symbolism from the Dacians and Parthians, who in turn had adopted the symbolism from India. On Roman coinage dragons are sometime depicted drawing a biga, or cart/chariot. The symbol became a popular emblem with the Roman Legionary Armies, and the officer who bore the dragon ensign bore the title "draconarius".

There is a dissenting opinion, that being that the animal held in Tranquillitass hand is not a dragon, but rather a capricornus, which would tie in with the maritime theme of the transportation of Egypts grain harvest across the Mediterranean to Rome. The capricornus was oftentimes depicted on Roman coinage in conjunction with a rudder, again tying to the maritime transport so critical in moving grain into Rome. A capricorn or "capricornus" was a fanciful, mythical creatures which was in the forepart a goat, and terminated in the tail of a fish. According to myth the capricornus was Pan in disguise, who had assumed this form when he threw himself in a river on account of his terror of, and to escape the wrath of the giant Typhon. In recognition of his ingenious metamorphosis, Jupiter enrolled him among the stars (and thus we have the zodiac sign of capricorn). A capricorn is a common thematic emblem on the Roman coinage of Octavius Augustus, who was born under the sign.

The capricornus also figured in the coins of Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius. Pendant style a is a clear, airtight acrylic capsule designed to afford your ancient coin maximum protection from both impact damage and degradation. It is the most politically correct mounting. Style d is a sterling silver pendant. Either pendant styles include a sterling silver chain (16", 18", or 20).

Upon request, there are also an almost infinite variety of other pendants which might well suit both you and your ancient coin pendant, and include both sterling silver and solid 14kt gold mountings, including those shown here. As well, upon request, we can also make available a huge variety of chains in lengths from 16 to 30 inches, in metals including sterling silver, 14kt gold fill, and solid 14kt gold. HISTORY : Coins came into being during the seventh century B. In Lydia and Ionia, part of the Greek world, and were made from a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver.

Each coin blank was heated and struck with a hammer between two engraved dies. Unlike modern coins, they were not uniformly round. Each coin was wonderfully unique. Coinage quickly spread to the island and city states of Western Greece. Alexander the Great 336-323 B.

Then spread the concept of coinage throughout the lands he conquered. Ancient coins are archaeological treasures from the past.

They were buried for safekeeping because of their value and have been slowly uncovered throughout modern history. Oftentimes soldiers the night before battle would bury their coins and jewelry, hoping and believing that they would live long enough to recover them, and to return to their family.

Killed in battle, these little treasure hoards remain until today scattered throughout Western and Eastern Europe, even into the Levant and Persia. As well, everyone from merchants to housewives found the safest place to keep their savings was buried in a pot, or in some other secretive location. Recently a commercial excavation for a new building foundation in London unearthed a Roman mosaic floor. When archaeologists removed the floor, they found 7,000 silver denarii secreted beneath the floor.

Even the Roman mints buried their produce. There were over 300 mints in the Roman Empire striking coinage. Hoards of as many as 40,000 coins have been found in a single location near these ancient sites.

Ancient coins reflect the artistic, political, religious, and economic themes of their times. The acquisition of ancient coins is a unique opportunity to collect art which has been appreciated throughout the centuries. Coins of the Roman Empire most frequently depicted the Emperor on the front of the coins, and were issued in gold, silver, and bronze. The imperial family was also frequently depicted on the coinage, and, in some cases, coins depicted the progression of an emperor from boyhood through maturity.

The reverse side of often served as an important means of political propaganda, frequently extolling the virtues of the emperor or commemorating his victories. Many public works and architectural achievements such as the Coliseum and the Circus Maximus were also depicted.

Important political events such as alliances between cities were recorded on coinage. Many usurpers to the throne, otherwise unrecorded in history, are known only through their coins.

Interestingly, a visually stunning portrayal of the decline of the Roman Empire is reflected in her coinage. The early Roman bronze coins were the size of a half-dollar. Within 100-150 years those had shrunk to the size of a nickel. And within another 100-150 years, to perhaps half the size of a dime.

One of the greatest civilizations of recorded history was the ancient Roman Empire. The Roman civilization, in relative terms the greatest military power in the history of the world, was founded in the 8th century B. In the 4th Century B.

The Romans were the dominant power on the Italian Peninsula, having defeated the Etruscans and Celts. In the 3rd Century B. The Romans conquered Sicily, and in the following century defeated Carthage, and controlled the Greece.

Throughout the remainder of the 2nd Century B. The Roman Empire continued its gradual conquest of the Hellenistic (Greek Colonial) World by conquering Syria and Macedonia; and finally came to control Egypt in the 1st Century B. The pinnacle of Roman power was achieved in the 1st Century A. As Rome conquered much of Britain and Western Europe. For a brief time, the era of Pax Romana, a time of peace and consolidation reigned. Civilian emperors were the rule, and the culture flourished with a great deal of liberty enjoyed by the average Roman Citizen. However within 200 years the Roman Empire was in a state of steady decay, attacked by Germans, Goths, and Persians.

In the 4th Century A. The Roman Empire was split between East and West. The Great Emperor Constantine temporarily arrested the decay of the Empire, but within a hundred years after his death the Persians captured Mesopotamia, Vandals infiltrated Gaul and Spain, and the Goths even sacked Rome itself. Most historians date the end of the Western Roman Empire to 476 A.

When Emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed. However the Eastern Roman Empire (The Byzantine Empire) survived until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A. At its peak, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the West, throughout most of Western, Central, and Eastern Europe, and into Asia Minor.

Valuables such as coins and jewelry were commonly buried for safekeeping, and inevitably these ancient citizens would succumb to one of the many perils of the ancient world. Oftentimes the survivors of these individuals did not know where the valuables had been buried, and today, two thousand years later caches of coins and rings are still commonly uncovered throughout Europe and Asia Minor.

Roman Soldiers oftentimes came to possess large quantities of booty from their plunderous conquests, and routinely buried their treasure for safekeeping before they went into battle. If they met their end in battle, most often the whereabouts of their treasure was likewise, unknown. Throughout history these treasures have been inadvertently discovered by farmers in their fields, uncovered by erosion, and the target of unsystematic searches by treasure seekers.

With the introduction of metal detectors and other modern technologies to Eastern Europe in the past three or four decades, an amazing number of new finds are seeing the light of day 2,000 years or more after they were originally hidden by their past owners. And with the liberalization of post-Soviet Eastern Europe, new markets have opened eager to share in these treasures of the Roman Empire.

HISTORY OF SILVER : After gold, silver is the metal most widely used in jewelry and the most malleable. The oldest silver artifacts found by archaeologists date from ancient Sumeria about 4,000 B. At many points in the ancient world, it was actually more costly than gold, particularly in ancient Egypt. Silver is found in native form i. In nuggets, as an alloy with gold (electrum), and in ores containing sulfur, arsenic, antimony or chlorine.

Much of the silver originally found in the ancient world was actually a natural alloy of gold and silver (in nugget form) known as electrum. The first large-scale silver mines were in Anatolia (ancient Turkey) and Armenia, where as early as 4,000 B. Silver was extracted from lead ores by means of a complicated process known as smelting. Even then the process was not perfect, as ancient silver does contain trace elements, typically lead, gold, bismuth and other metals, and as much as a third of the silver was left behind in the slag. However measuring the concentrations of the impurities in ancient silver can help the forensic jewelry historian in determining the authenticity of classical items.

From Turkey and Armenia silver refining technology spread to the rest of Asia Minor and Europe. By about 2,500 B. The Babylonians were one of the major refiners of silver. Silver treasures recovered by archaeologists from the second and third millenniums demonstrate the high value the ancient Mediterranean and Near East placed upon silver. Some of the richest burials in history uncovered by archaeologists have been from this time frame, that of Queen Puabi of Ur, Sumeria 26th century B.

, and the rich Trojan 25th century B. And Mycenaean 18th century B. Treasures uncovered by Heinrich Schliemann.

The ancient Egyptians believed that the skin of their gods was composed of gold, and their bones were thought to be of silver. When silver was introduced into Egypt, it probably was more valuable than gold (silver was rarer and more valuable than gold in many Mesoamerican cultures as well). In surviving inventories of valuables, items of silver were listed above those of gold during the Old Kingdom.

Jewelry made of silver was almost always thinner than gold pieces, as indicated by the bracelets of the 4th Dynasty about 2,500 B. Queen Hetephere I, in marked contrast to the extravagance of her heavy gold jewelry. A silver treasure excavated by archaeologists and attributable to the reign of Amenemhat II who ruled during the 12th Dynasty about 1900 B. , contained fine silver items which were actually produced in Crete, by the ancient Minoans.

When the price of silver finally did fall due to more readily available supplies, for at least another thousand years through at least the 19th dynasty, about 1,200 B. The price of silver seems to have been fixed at half that of gold. Several royal mummies attributable to about 1,000 B. Were even entombed in solid silver coffins.

Greek Athenians began producing silver from the Laurium mines, and would supply much of the ancient Mediterranean world with its silver for almost 1,000 years. This ancient source was eventually supplemented around 800 B. (and then eventually supplanted) by the massive silver mines found in Spain by the Phoenicians and their colony (and ultimate successors) the Carthaginians (operated in part by Hannibals family). With the defeat of Carthage by Rome, the Romans gained control of these vast deposits, and mined massive amounts of silver from Spain, stripping entire forests regions for timber to fuel smelting operations.

In fact, it was not until the Middle Ages that Spains silver mines (and her forests) were finally exhausted. Although known during the Copper Age, silver made only rare appearances in jewelry before the classical age. Despite its infrequent use as jewelry however, silver was widely used as coinage due to its softness, brilliant color, and resistance to oxidation. By the Lydians of present-day Turkey. Having access to silver deposits and being able to mine them played a big role in the classical world. Actual silver coins were first produced in Lydia about 610 B. And subsequently in Athens in about 580 B. Many historians have argued that it was the possession and exploitation of the Laurium mines by the Athenians that allowed them to become the most powerful city state in Greece.

The Athenians were well aware of the significance of the mining operations to the prosperity of their city, as every citizen had shares in the mines. Enough silver was mined and refined at Laurium to finance the expansion of Athens as a trading and naval power. One estimate is that Laurium produced 160 million ounces of silver, worth six billion dollars today (when silver is by comparison relatively cheap and abundant).

As the production of silver from the Laurium mines ultimately diminished, Greek silver production shifted to mines in Macedonia. Silver coinage played a significant role in the ancient world. Macedonias coinage during the reign of Philip II 359-336 B. Circulated widely throughout the Hellenic world.

His famous son, Alexander the Great 336-323 B. , spread the concept of coinage throughout the lands he conquered. For both Philip II and Alexander silver coins became an essential way of paying their armies and meeting other military expenses. They also used coins to make a realistic portrait of the ruler of the country.

The Romans also used silver coins to pay their legions. Roman silver coins also served as an important means of political propaganda, extolling the virtues of Rome and her emperors, and continued in the Greek tradition of realistic portraiture. As well, many public works and architectural achievements were also depicted (among them the Coliseum, the Circus Maximus). In addition many important political events were recorded on the coinage.

You can Romaan coins which depicted the assassination of Julius Caesar, alliances between cities, between emperors, between armies, etc. And many contenders for the throne of Rome are known only through their coinage. Silver was also widely used as ornamental work and in other metal wares.

In ancient cultures, especially in Rome, silver was highly prized for the making of plate ware, household utensils, and ornamental work. The stability of Romes economy and currency depended primarily on the output of the silver mines in Spain which they had wrested from the Carthaginians. In fact many historians would say that it was the control of the wealth of these silver mines which enabled Rome to conquer most of the Mediterranean world. The Romans invaded Britain they were quick to discover and exploit the lead-silver deposits there as well. Only six years later they had established many mines and Britain became another major source of silver for the Roman Empire.

It is estimated that by the second century A. 10,000 tons of Roman silver coins were in circulation within the empire. Thats about 3½ billion silver coins (at the height of the empire, there were over 400 mints throughout the empire producing coinage). Thats ten times the total amount of silver available to Medieval Europe and the Islamic world combined as of about 800 A.

Silver later lost its position of dominance to gold, particularly in the chaos following the fall of Rome. Large-scale mining in Spain petered out, and when large-scale silver mining finally resumed four centuries after the fall of Rome, most of the mining activity was in Central Europe. By the time of the European High Middle Ages, silver once again became the principal material used for metal artwork.

Huge quantities of silver from the New World also encouraged eager buyers in Europe, and enabled the Spanish to become major players in the late Medieval and Renaissance periods. Unlike the ores in Europe which required laborious extraction and refining methods to result in pure silver, solid silver was frequently found as placer deposits in stream beds in Spains New World colonies, reportedly in some instances solid slabs weighing as much as 2,500 pounds. Prior to the discovery of massive silver deposits in the New World, silver had been valued during the Middle Ages at about 10%-15% of the value of gold. The discovery of massive silver deposits in the New World during the succeeding centuries has caused the price to diminish greatly, falling to only 1-2% of the value of gold.

The art of silver work flourished in the Renaissance, finding expression in virtually every imaginable form. Silver was often plated with gold and other decorative materials. Although silver sheets had been used to overlay wood and other metals since ancient Greece, an 18th-century technique of fusing thin silver sheets to copper brought silver goods called Sheffield plate within the reach of most people. At the same time the use of silver in jewelry making had also started gaining popularity in the 17th century.

It was often as support in settings for diamonds and other transparent precious stones, in order to encourage the reflection of light. Silver continued to gain in popularity throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, and by the 20th century competed with gold as the principal metal used in the manufacture of jewelry. Silver has the highest thermal and electrical conductivity of any metal, and one of the highest optical reflectivity values. It has a brilliant metallic luster, is very ductile and malleable, only slightly harder than gold, and is easily worked and polished.

When used in jewelry, silver is commonly alloyed to include 7.5% copper, known as Sterling Silver, to increase the hardness and reduce the melting temperature. Silver jewelry may be plated with 99.9% pure Fine Silver to increase the shine when polished. It may also be plated with rhodium to prevent tarnish. Virtually all gold, with the exception of 24 carat gold, includes silver.

Most gold alloys are primarily composed of only gold and silver. Throughout the history of the ancient world, gemstones were believed capable of curing illness, possessed of valuable metaphysical properties, and to provide protection. Found in Egypt dated 1500 B.

The "Papyrus Ebers" offered one of most complete therapeutic manuscripts containing prescriptions using gemstones and minerals. Gemstones were not only valued for their medicinal and protective properties, but also for educational and spiritual enhancement.

Precious minerals were likewise considered to have medicinal and magical properties in the ancient world. In its pure form silver is non toxic, and when mixed with other elements is used in a wide variety of medicines. Silver ions and silver compounds show a toxic effect on some bacteria, viruses, algae and fungi.

Silver was widely used before the advent of antibiotics to prevent and treat infections, silver nitrate being the prevalent form. Silver Iodide was used in babies' eyes upon birth to prevent blinding as the result of bacterial contamination. Silver is still widely used in topical gels and impregnated into bandages because of its wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The recorded use of silver to prevent infection dates to ancient Greece and Rome. Hippocrates, the ancient 5th century B.

Greek "father of medicine" wrote that silver had beneficial healing and anti-disease properties. The ancient Phoenicians stored water, wine, and vinegar in silver bottles to prevent spoiling. These uses were rediscovered in the Middle Ages, when silver was used for several purposes; such as to disinfect water and food during storage, and also for the treatment of burns and wounds as a wound dressing.

The ingestion of colloidal silver was also believed to help restore the body's electromagnetic balance to a state of equilibrium, and it was believed to detoxify the liver and spleen. In the 19th century sailors on long ocean voyages would put silver coins in barrels of water and wine to keep the liquid potable. Silver (and gold) foil is also used through the world as a food decoration.

Traditional Indian dishes sometimes include the use of decorative silver foil, and in various cultures silver dragée (silver coated sugar balls) are used to decorate cakes, cookies, and other dessert items. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers.

Unfortunately the contents of parcels are easily lost or misdelivered by postal employees even in the USA. International tracking is at additional cost. Please ask for a rate quotation. Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years.

Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with.

Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the business of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. The item "Silver Roman Denarius (Coin) Emperor Philip the Arab + Legionary Dragon AD248" is in sale since Sunday, September 3, 2017.

This item is in the category "Collectibles\Decorative Collectibles\Other Decorative Collectibles". The seller is "ancientgifts" and is located in Lummi Island, Washington. This item can be shipped worldwide.

Silver Roman Denarius (Coin) Emperor Philip the Arab + Legionary Dragon AD248